[86] The official exchange rate is projected to be on average US$28,500/IRR. “If Iran’s Guardian Council resort to mass disqualification of the reformists to weaken the Rouhani government, then this will only further erode the legitimacy of the parliamentary system with few benefits, since the voter turnout in favour of the reformist camp was already expected to be very low.” The first parliaments date back to the Middle Ages. Iran's system allows for elections, but political groups must operate within the strict boundaries of the Islamic Republic. [74], In May 2013, the Iranian parliament approved a 7.27-quadrillion-rial (about $593 billion) national budget bill for 2013–14. A member of the Independent parliamentary bloc’s board of directors Ezatollah Yousefian Molla has told media outlets a number of lawmakers are preparing a letter addressed to Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei to ask him order a constitutional revision. Ali Khamenei has been the Supreme Leader of Iran since 1989 and is arguably the most powerful political figure in Iran today. The reformists say this system creates a closed circle of power. (1987) it may, in consideration of human, political, geographic and other factors, be increased by a maximum of twenty. The last prime minister was Mir Hossein Mousavi, who held the office from 1981 to 1989, … Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. Based on Article 64 of the Constitution, the number of representatives of the Parliament of Iran shall be two hundred and seventy, and for every decade since the national referendum of 1368 H. Sh. NCRI – A number of Iranian regime MPs are to write a letter to regime leader Ali Khamenei, asking him to issue a ‘constitution revision order’ so the current presidential system could be turned into a parliamentary one. The politics of Iran take place in a framework that officially combines elements of theocracy and presidential democracy. Article 71 of the Constitution also acknowledges to the status: The Parliament may pass laws in all issues, within the jurisdiction defined by the Constitution. The new national budget has forecast a 40% drop in oil revenues compared to the previous year's projected figure. The first function: Legislative authority, like other parliaments in the world, in the specific sense of the word, testifies the same key point; Article 4 of the Constitution cites that all laws and regulations pertaining to civil, penal, financial, economic, administrative, cultural, military, political and other spheres must be based on Islamic criteria. Majlis authorities gained out of the standpoint in the Constitution are as follows: *Passing and ratifying laws: Articles 4 and 71 of the Constitution, *Interpretation of ordinary laws: Article 73 of the Constitution, *Approval of all international treaties, protocols, contracts, and agreements: Article 77 of the Constitution, *Approval of direct recourse to popular votes: Article 59 of Constitution. )[31] The plan is to increase taxation on large organizations by reducing tax evasion/exemption. However, in certain countries like Iran, the parliament has much more extensive duties compared to parliaments in other parts of the world due to the type of public opinion towards parliament. MEK resistance units inside Iran: My vote is regime change. News", "Iranian Government Facing Budget Shortfall", "Iran needs oil at $127 to balance budget", "Iranian Parliament passes $593 billion national budget bill", "Irandaily - No. Revenues from taxes have been projected at 458 trillion Rials ($37 billion), which shows a 10% increase year-on-year. Turnout has fallen from 80% in 1997 to 60% in 2005. Once approved by Majlis, the bill still needs to be ratified by the Guardian Council. Alike other branches of power, parliaments share highly common duties in many countries. The parliamentary system in the Islamic Republic of Iran. The Iranian Parliament also approved a total budget of $500 billion (5,170 trillion rials) that factors in $54 billion from price hikes and subsidy cuts and aside from the government (or public budget) also includes spending for state-owned companies. Iran’s Majlis—officially the Islamic Consultative Assembly (Majlis-e shoura-ye eslami), and in Western terms a popularly elected parliament—was established in the wake of the 1979 Iranian Revolution. [46], According to the head of the Department of Statistics of Iran, if the rules of budgeting were observed in this structure, the government could save at least 30 to 35 percent on its expenses. In November 1979 the US embassy was seized and its occupants taken hostage and kept captive for 444 days because of support of the US government for the King of Iran. The Iranian Parliament is called “the Islamic Consultative Assembly” or “Majlis.”. [70] Approved budget of 5,660 trillion Rials $477 billion is based on an oil price of $85 per barrel and the average value of the U.S. dollar for the fiscal year has been projected to be 12,260 rials, allowing the government to gain $53.8 billion from subsidy cut. [33], A unique feature of Iran's economy is the large size of the religious foundations (called Bonyads) whose combined budgets make up more than 30% that of the central government. However, since the Iranian Revolution, the government's general budget payments have averaged:[40], Iran spent 22.5% of its 2003 national budget on social welfare programs of which more than 50% covered pension costs.[45]. Indonesia is currently the largest Islamic democracy in the world.. Based on Article 91 of the Constitution, the Guardian Council will be composed of the following: Six   jurists (fuqahã’), who are persons of integrity (‘ãdil) and well aware of the present needs and issues of the day and six lawyers who are Muslim, specializing in various fields of law. The government also is seeking higher sums for development, research, and health projects. The country had no functioning political parties until the Executives of Construction Party formed in 1994 to run for the fifth parliamentary elections, mainly out of executive body of the government close to the then-president Akbar Hashemi-Rafsanjani. In 930, the first assembly of the Alþingi was convened at Þingvellir in Iceland, becoming the earliest version of a formalized parliamentary system. [34][35][36], Setad, another organization worth more than $95 billion, has been described as "secretive" and "little known". [40], As of 2010, oil income accounts for 80% of Iran's foreign currency revenues and 60% of the nation's overall budget. Other items (earmarked expenditures, foreign-exchange losses, coverage of liabilities of letters of credit, and net lending) accounted for the remainder. [64] Iran balances its external accounts around $75 per barrel. A list of countries with semi-presidential constitutions is posted separately. [73] According to Apicorp, Iran needs oil to average $127 a barrel in 2012 for its fiscal budget to break even. In the 2016 elections to Iran’s Majlis, 290 seats will be up for grabs (the same as in 2012). A new political system was introduced in Iraq after Saddam Hussein’s regime was brought down in 2003. By mid-1982, power struggles eliminated first the center of political spectrum and then the Republicans[3][4][5] leaving the revolutionary leader Ayatollah Khomeini and his supporters in power. Iran's budget is established by the Management and Planning Organization of Iran and then proposed by the government to the parliament/Majlis. Deputy Majles Speaker Amir-Hossein Ghazizadeh Hashemi has said in a September 6 interview with semi-official ISNA news agency that it is difficult for the parliament to make the president accountable in the current system. [77][78][79][80] The budget bill permits the government to use more than $35 billion in foreign finance. Of the $134 billion for the government's general budget, $117 billion relates to operating expenditure and $17 billion is for infrastructure developments. The IMF estimated in October 2014 that Iran would run a general government deficit of $8.6 billion in 2015, at the official exchange rate, to be compensated by drawing on the National Development Fund. The Government seeks to increase the share of tax revenue in the budget through the implementation of the economic reform plan through more effective tax collection from businesses. Last week, the Iranian regime held its sham parliamentary by-election. "According to World Bank figures, which take 1974 as 100, per capita GDP went from a high of 115 in 1976 to a low of 60 in 1988, the year war with Iraq ended ..." (Keddie. "Selected Issues" Report, Islamic Republic of Iran, March 2018. Semi-Presidential System.Sometimes called a dual ️executive system, this is a system in which a president exists alongside a prime minister and a cabinet. The armed forces, judicial system, state television, and other key governmental organizations are under the control of the Supreme Leader. The approved "total budget", including state owned commercial companies, was $295 billion for the same period.[42]. NCRI Staff. The third function of the Majlis is fulfilling the duties arising from representation in the sense of formation and official recognition of Majlis and its control and supervisory over the executive branch. 4680 - Front page. According to Article 62 of the Constitution, Majlis members are elected directly by the secret vote of the public. Noting the function and status of the Parliament in the political system of the Islamic Republic of Iran, it can be concluded that contrary to many traditional and ruling systems worldwide, that merely focus on forming a consultative parliament, whose members are mainly appointed and only offer consultative and non-binding recommendations to the head of state (government), Islamic Republic of Irans Majlis is the most important and most fundamental democratic pillar, whose dissolution is impossible and is active under all circumstances. Hence, based on Article 112 of the Constitution, the State Expediency Council will meet by the order of the Supreme Leader to decide what is most expedient whenever the Guardian Council considers a bill approved by the Islamic Majlis of Iran to be contrary to the principles of the Sharí‘ah or the Constitution and the Parliament is unable to secure the satisfaction of the Guardian Council on the basis of national expediency. [92] Sixty-five percent of the budget is to be financed through taxation and the remaining 35% from oil sales, based on 2.25 million barrels of oil sales per day, an average oil price of 40 dollars a barrel and US dollar-Iranian rial exchange rate at 29,970. Legislative elections were held in Iran on 21 February 2020, four years after the previous legislative election in 2016. Iran’s political system functions in a theocratic structure of Syncretic politics that is ruled by an Islamist ideology. Iran is a Guardianship of the Islamic Jurist and Islamic republic in which the president, parliament (Majles) and judicial system share powers reserved to the national government, according to its Constitution. Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Judicial system of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Supreme Council of the Cultural Revolution, Learn how and when to remove this template message, diplomatic relations with Iran by the United States, highest ranking political and religious authority, Iranian Assembly of Experts election, 2016, Management and Planning Organization of Iran, macro-economic and monetary policies of the government of Iran, Government of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Acquisition of capital assets/development expenditures, Repayment of external debts and obligations, revenues from the sale of crude oil and gas, International Rankings of Iran in Politics, "The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency", IRAN: POLITICS, THE MILITARY AND GULF SECURITY, "Huge cost of Iranian brain drain By Frances Harrison", "Iran's Khamenei hits out at Rafsanjani in rare public rebuke", "Khamenei says Iran must go green - Al-Monitor: the Pulse of the Middle East", "Exclusive: Iran pursues ballistic missile work, complicating nuclear talks", "IranWire - Asking for a Miracle: Khamenei's Economic Plan", "PressTV-'Economic issues, Iran's foremost problem, "Iran: Executive, legislative branch officials endorse privatization plan", "Khamenei slams Rouhani as Iran's regime adopted UN education agenda", "Leader outlines elections guidelines, calls for transparency", "BBC NEWS - Middle East - Iranian vice-president 'sacked, "Rafsanjani breaks taboo over selection of Iran's next supreme leader", "Everything you need to know about Iran's Assembly of Experts election", "Iranian Government Constitution, English Text", "PressTV-Iranian MPs approve budget bill outline", "Mostazafan and Janbazan (Oppressed and Disabled Veterans) Foundation (MJF)", "Khamenei controls massive financial empire built on property seizures, (part 1)", Mehr News Agency: Iran eyes $250 billion annual revenue in 5 years, "Iran's 'Frozen' Assets: Exaggeration on Both Sides of the Debate", "Ten Million Iranians Under 'Absolute Poverty Line, Iran to test investor confidence with debt issue, "IMF: Iran accord to lift Mideast economy", "Iran: Concluding Statement of an IMF Staff Visit", Iran's external debts cut by $10b, hit $7.2b: Central Bank Chief, https://www.presstv.com/Detail/2021/02/03/644483/Iran-foreign-debt-CBI-figures, "The Memorandum of The Foreign Trade Regime of The Islamic Republic of Iran", "Islamic Republic of Iran: 2009 Article IV Consultation—Staff Report; Staff Supplement; Public Information Notice on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Executive Director for Iran", "Ahmadi-Nejad unveils expansionary Iran budget", PBS - Iran Primer: The Oil and Gas Industry, "Iran Parliament Cut Budget 2.25% Before Approval, Donya Reports", "Global Legal Monitor: Iran: Criticism of Newly Proposed Budget - Global Legal Monitor - Law Library of Congress - Library of Congress", "Iran parliament approves reduced sanction-hit budget - Yahoo! Half of the members will be elected by the Supreme Leader and another half by Parliament of Iran. [69] The defense budget shows an increase of 127 percent. In Iran’s post-Revolutionary political system, the Guardian Council sets eligibility criteria and selects aspiring candidates for presidential or parliamentary polls based on certain requirements. Noting the function and status of the Parliament in the political system of the Islamic Republic of Iran, it can be concluded that contrary to many traditional and ruling systems worldwide, that merely focus on forming a consultative parliament, whose members are mainly appointed and only offer consultative and non-binding recommendations to the head of state (government), Islamic Republic of Irans Majlis is … 3. [94] Iranian reformists, such as Mohammad-Ali Abtahi have considered this to be the core legal obstacle for the reform movement in Iran.[95][96][97][98][99]. Semi-Presidential System.Sometimes called a dual ️executive system, this is a system in which a president exists alongside a prime minister and a cabinet. The Guardian Council has 12 members: 6 clerics, appointed by the Supreme Leader and 6 jurists, elected by the Majlis from among the Muslim jurists nominated by the Head of the Judicial System, who is appointed by the Supreme Leader. [31], Following annual approval of the government's budget by Majlis, the central bank presents a detailed monetary and credit policy to the Money and Credit Council (MCC) for approval. This led to incorporation and official activity of many other groups, including hard-liners. [55] These arrears are owed to banks (45%), private contractors (37%), and social security (18%) (FY 2016). These are the most recent elections that have taken place. Yusefiyan-Molla then added that as Iran’s supreme leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, had dismissed the idea, no … There are 43 million eligible voters in Iran. Based on Article 63 of the Constitution, the term of membership of the Islamic Parliament of Iran is four years. After the war, new reformist/progressive parties had started to form. The value of the US dollar is estimated at IRR 10,500 for the same period. [32] The 5-year plan is part of "Vision 2025", a strategy for long-term sustainable growth. The Shah served as its head of state while the Prime Minister held the post of the head of government from the 1906 Persian Constitution. Between FY 2000 and FY 2004, total expenditures and net lending accounted for about 26 percent of GDP. The Islamic Republic Party was Iran's ruling political party and for years its only political party until its dissolution in 1987. The 2015 budget is not expected to bring much growth for many of the domestic industries. [38] But according to the Santiago Principles, NDFI must coordinate its investment decisions and actions with the macro-economic and monetary policies of the government of Iran. [56] Iran's external debt was $9.3 billion in December 2020. 4671 - Front page. 8th October 2017. [47], Contrary to the main objective and because of a lack in the implementation of the subsidy reform plan, the volume of Iranian subsidies given to its citizens on fossil fuel, which increased 42.2% in 2019, equals 15.3% of Iran's GDP and 16% of total global energy subsidies. The early days of the revolutionary government were characterized by political tumult. 28% will come from taxes and the remaining, This page was last edited on 18 February 2021, at 09:35. [66][67] The budget is based on an oil price of $80 per barrel. The December 1979 constitution, and its 1989 amendment, define the political, economic, and social order of the Islamic Republic of Iran, declaring that Shia Islam is Iran's official religion where around 90–95% of Iranians associate themselves with the Shia branch of Islam.[1]. Revenues from crude oil make up 37% of the state's total revenues in the budget. Parliamentary and related systems. Iran is a Guardianship of the Islamic Jurist and Islamic republic in which the president, parliament (Majles) and judicial system share powers reserved to the national government, according to its Constitution. [30] Overall, an estimated 50 percent of Iran's GDP was exempt from taxes in FY 2004. The government's general budget for 2012–13 shows a 3.5% decline in comparison to the previous year, while the budget for state-owned companies and organisations has risen by 18.5%. Mehdi Bazargan served as the country's first post-revolutionary prime minister, before his government resigned following Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini's endorsement of the US Embassy takeover in November 1979. Iran's oil vs non-oil real GDP growth projections. The Zoroastrians and Jews will each elect one representative; Assyrian and Chaldean Christians will jointly elect one representative; and Armenian Christians in the north and the south will each elect one representative. The Supreme Leader The most important politician in Iran is the Supreme Leader. Out of this amount, 410 trillion Rials is allocated for direct cash handouts to those eligible who have registered and for social funds. The first parliaments date back to the Middle Ages. The December 1979 constitution, and its 1989 amendment, define the political, economic, and social order of the Islamic Republic of Iran, declaring that Shia Islamis Iran's official religion where ar… There exist a number of perspectives on the relationship of Islam and democracy among Islamic political theorists, the general Muslim public, and Western authors.. ... Nearly 40% of the original 7,597 candidates who registered were disqualified under an elaborate system that weeds out anyone believed to have an "unsuitable" political record of loyalty to the Islamic Republic.